View: India needs to improve its educational outcomes to catch up with China

Education

Both China and India started building their national education systems under comparable conditions in the late 1940s. Different policies and historical circumstances have, however, led them to different educational outcomes, with China outperforming India not just in terms of its percentage of literate population and enrollment rates at all levels of education, but also in terms of number of world-class institutions in higher education, and greater research output.

The roots of China’s successful education system date back to the Cultural Revolution(1966-1976), which unintentionally expanded access to the primary education through democratising the schooling system, which was previously elitist in character, thus addressing the problem of mass illiteracy.

In contrast, India continued to focus on its higher education system since independence and only realised the importance of basic education in 1986, keeping it behind China and many other countries in Asia in educational development. In terms of enrollment, China reached a 100 percent gross enrollment rate (GER) in its primary education in 1985, whereas, India attained that level only in 2000.

In terms of secondary school enrollment, India and China both started at the similar rates in 1985, with about 40 percent of their population enrolled in secondary schools. However, due to a wider base of primary school students, the rate of increase in China has been much faster than in India, with 99 percent secondary enrollment rate in China and 79 percent in India in 2017.

India is closing in on the Chinese rate in terms of access to education, but on the literacy level front, there is a huge gap in the percentage of literate populations in the two countries. In the age group of 15-24 years, India scores 104th rank on literacy and numeracy indicator, compared to China’s 40th rank.

The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which assesses after every three years the domain knowledge of 15-year-old students in reading, mathematics, science and finance, revealed that students in China performed above the OECD average in 2015. Moreover, one in four students in China are top performers in mathematics, having an ability to formulate complex situations mathematically. Further, China outperforms all the other participating countries in financial literacy, by having a high ability to analyse complex finance products. For India, the comparable data is not available as it was not a participating country in PISA 2015.

However, in India, the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2017 provides data for rural youth, aged 14-18, with respect to their abilities to lead productive lives as adults. According to this survey, only about half of the 14-year-old children in the sample could read English sentences, and more than half of the students surveyed could not do basic arithmetic operations, like division. For basic financial calculations, such as managing a budget or making a purchase decision, less than two-thirds could do the correct calculations.

With regard to the higher education system, both India and China dominate the number of tertiary degree holders because of their large population size, but when it comes to the percentage of the population holding tertiary degrees, only about 10 per cent and 8 per cent of the population possess university degrees in China and India, respectively. By contrast, in Japan, almost 50 per cent of the population holds a tertiary degree, and in the United States, 31 per cent of the population hold a tertiary degree.

In terms of the international recognition of universities, the Times Higher Education (THE) World University Ranking for 2019 places seven of the China’s universities in the top 200, compared to none for India. The global university rankings, which are based on various performance metrices, pertaining to teaching, research, citations, international outlook and industrial income, shows progress for several of China’s low-ranked universities, largely driven by improvements in its citations.

In fact, the Tsinghua University has overtaken the National University of Singapore (NUS) to become the best university in Asia due to improvements in its citations, institutional income and increased share of international staff, students and co-authored publications.

While India has progressed in terms of massification of education, there is still a lot which needs to be done when it comes to catching up with the China’s educational outcomes. China’s early start in strengthening its primary and secondary education systems has given it an edge over India in terms of higher education. Moreover, Chinese government strategies are designed in line with the criterion used in major world university rankings, especially emphasis is on the two factors which weigh heavily in the rankings — publications and international students.

The relentless publications drive, which is very evident in China, is weak in India and has led to a growing gap in the number of publications contributed by the two countries. Further, China enrolled about 292,611 foreign students in 2011 from 194 countries, while India currently only has 46,144 foreign students enrolled in its higher education institutions, coming from 166 countries. The large number of international enrollments in China is a reflection of its state policies granting high scholarships to foreign students.

To catch up with China, India needs to lay emphasis on improving its educational outcomes. Massification drive for education has helped India raise its student enrollments, but a lot needs to be done when it comes to global recognition for its universities. Further, it needs to focus on building the foundation skills which are acquired by students at the school age, poor fundamental skills flow through the student life, affecting adversely the quality of education system.

[“source=economictimes.indiatimes”]

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Boys, 11 And 12, Named For UP Cow Slaughter; Spent 4 Hours With Police

Two children, 11 and 12, have been named as accused in a case filed over cow slaughter allegations that led to a frenzied mob murdering a police officer in Uttar Pradesh’s Bulandhshar.

The boys, who are cousins, are among seven named in a complaint of cow slaughter filed after carcasses were found strewn around in a forest near village Nayabans in Bulandshahr.

The complainant, Yogesh Raj, is a Bajrang Dal activist who is the main accused in mob killing of inspector Subodh Kumar Singh. He is missing since the incident.

Yogesh Raj is seen in a video arguing with the police and demanding action against cow slaughter on Monday, shortly before the situation went out of hand and a mob attacked policemen, burnt the police outpost and set vehicles on fire.

Yogesh Raj’s complaint includes two children, one man who does not live in the village anymore, and three names the villagers have never heard.

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Inspector Subodh Kumar was killed in mob frenzy over cow carcasses found near a village in Uttar Pradesh’s Bulandshahr

The village is stunned that children have been named for cow slaughter. The father of one of the boys says they were not even in the village the day of the incident.

“The police came to our house, called us to the police station and kept us there for four hours. They took the names of the boys and took my phone number. I was told we should be called again if required,” the father said.

So six of the seven names in the cow slaughter case are doubtful, NDTV learnt from inquiries in the village. One of the “accused” lives in Faridabad in Haryana and has not stayed in the village in 10 years.

[“source=ndtv”]

Florida Georgia Line Expands Empire With New Creative Compound In Nashville

Tyler Hubbard and Brian Kelley of award-winning country duo Florida Georgia Line expanded their ever-growing empire once again with the opening of a brand new creative compound in Nashville.

The property is home to three businesses: meet + greet, Tree Vibez Music and Tribe Kelley Trading Post. Each company offers something different to Nashville’s budding business and entertainment industries.

With 2,471-square-foot of work and meeting space, meet + greet features five rooms, two private balconies, an organic espresso bar and a picturesque outdoor space. Rooms are available to rent for guests and members.

Tree Vibez Music is a publishing company founded by Hubbard and Kelley in 2015. The home office boasts a recording studio and writing rooms for the company’s entire roster, which features artists and songwriters such as RaeLynn and Canaan Smith.

Lastly, the Tribe Kelley Trading Post is a unique storefront featuring clothing and accessories from the Tribe Kelley brand, which was founded by Kelley and his wife Brittney.

Finding a gorgeous, tree-lined property in the middle of Nashville wasn’t an easy feat, but once Kelley stumbled upon this particular piece of land, the men knew they had to have it.

“We were able to get our hands on it and we kind of had a vision and a dream to keep the original houses that were here, but add on to it,” Hubbard explains. “We wanted to kind of restore them and make them places that we could come to and be creative and create something for our friends and our writers to come to.”

The end result “brings together music, fashion, business … even coffee,” and it’s something the duo is “really, really proud of.”

Giving back to the Nashville music community is one of Florida Georgia Line’s biggest passions. This new compound will allow them to do just that.

“That’s what it’s all about, being a little light to the younger artists,” Kelley shares. “We had that as we came up, from Jake Owen to Taylor Swift, the list goes on and on. We’ve been very fortunate and very blessed to kind of be like sponges and soak up as much knowledge and experience as we can and to be able to pass that on is really rewarding.”

New artists have a lot to learn from the duo’s success. Since the release of their debut single, “Cruise,” in 2012, Florida Georgia has catapulted into superstardom. They have sold out stadiums, earned 16 chart-topping singles and they currently hold the title for the longest-running No.1 (48 weeks and counting) on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart with “Meant to Be” with Bebe Rexha.

The opening of the creative compound follows the duo’s other successful business ventures, which include the launch of Old Camp Whiskey and the opening of FGL House, their 22,000-square-foot restaurant in Nashville.

The guys admit the empire they’ve built is pretty surreal, but want fans to know they don’t take a second of it for granted.

“We had a pretty big dream and God just kind of took that dream and multiplied it bigger than we could have ever even imagined,” Hubbard says with a smile.

In the midst of their busy careers as singers, songwriters and entrepreneurs, they do make a point to step back and soak it all in every now and then.

“It’s been amazing what one dream can lead to, and what great music and great songs can lead to, and the opportunity now that we get to create of other people… it’s so fulfilling,” Hubbard adds.

Florida Georgia Line is currently putting the finishing touches on their much-anticipated new studio album. While they couldn’t reveal exactly when fans can get their hands on the new record, Kelley told me it would arrive at the “top of next year.”

“We just love getting new music out,” he says. “We’re chomping at the bit for sure.”

[“source=forbes]