IBM And NVIDIA Power New Scale-Out Gear For AI

Accelerating deep learning (DL) training – on GPUs, TPUs, FPGAs or other accelerators – is in the early days scale-out architecture, like the server market was in the mid-2000s. DL training enables the advanced pattern recognition behind modern artificial intelligence (AI) based services. NVIDIA GPUs have been a major driver for DL development and commercialization, but IBM just made an important contribution to scale-out DL acceleration. Understanding what IBM did and how that work advances AI deployments takes some explanation.

Scale Matters

TIRIAS Research

Key Definitions

Inference scales-out. Trained DL models can be simplified for faster processing with good enough pattern recognition to create profitable services. Inference can scale-out as small individual tasks running on multiple inexpensive servers. There is a lot of industry investment aimed at lowering the cost of delivering inference, we’ll discuss that in the future.

The immediate challenge for creating deployable inference models is that, today, training scales-up. Training requires large data sets and high numeric precision; aggressive system designs are needed to meet real-world training times and accuracies. But cloud economics are driven by scale-out.

The challenge for cloud companies deploying DL-based AI services, such as Microsoft’s Cortana, Amazon’s Alexa and Google Home, is that DL training has not scaled well. Poor off-the-shelf scaling is mostly due to the immature state of DL acceleration, forcing service providers to invest (in aggregate) hundreds of millions of dollars in research and development (R&D), engineering and deployment of proprietary scale-out systems.

NVLink Scales-Up in Increments of Eight GPUs

GPU evolution has been a key part of DL success over recent years. General purpose processors were, and still are, too slow at processing DL math with large training data sets. NVIDIA invested early in leveraging GPUs for DL acceleration, in both new GPU architectures to further accelerate DL and in DL software development tools to enable easy access to GPU acceleration.

An important part of NVIDIA’s GPU acceleration strategy is NVLink. NVLink is a scale-up high-speed direct GPU-to-GPU interconnect architecture that directly connects two to eight GPU sockets. NVLink enables GPUs to train together with minimum processor intervention. Prior to NVLink, GPUs did not have the low-latency interconnect, data flow control sophistication, or unified memory space needed to scale-up by themselves. NVIDIA implements NVLink using its SXM2 socket instead of PCIe.

NVIDIA’s DGX-1, Microsoft’s Open Compute Project (OCP) Project Olympus HGX-1 GPU chassis and Facebook’s “Big Basin” server contribution to OCP are very similar designs that each house eight NVIDIA Tesla SXM2 GPUs. The DGX-1 design includes a dual-processor x86 server node in the chassis, while the HGX-1 and Big Basin designs must be paired with separate server chassis.

Microsoft’s HGX-1 can bridge four GPU chassis by using its PCIe switch chips to connect the four NVLink domains to one to four server nodes. While all three designs are significant feats of server architecture, the HGX-1’s 32-GPU design limit presents a practical upper limit for directly connected scale-up GPU systems.

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Microsoft HGX-1 motherboard with eight SXM2 sockets (four populated)

The list price for each DGX-1 is $129,000 using NVIDIA’s P100 SXM2 GPU and $149,000 using its V100 SXM2 GPU (including the built-in dual-processor x86 server node). While this price range is within reach of some high-performance computing (HPC) cluster bids, it is not a typical cloud or academic purchase.

Original Design Manufacturers (ODMs) like Quanta Cloud Technology (QCT) manufacture variants of OCP’s HGX-1 and Big Basin chassis, but do not publish pricing. NVIDIA P100 modules are priced from about $5,400 to $9,400 each. Because NVIDIA’s SXM2 GPUs account for most of the cost of both Big Basin and HGX-1, we believe that system pricing for both is in the range of $50,000 to $70,000 per chassis unit (not including matching x86 servers), in cloud-sized purchase quantities.

Facebook’s Big Basin Performance Claims

Facebook published a paper in June describing how it connected 32 Big Basin systems over its internal network to aggregate 256 GPUs and train a ResNet-50 image recognition model in under an hour with about 90% scaling efficiency and 72% accuracy.

While 90% scaling efficiency is an impressive achievement for state-of-the-art, there are several challenges with Facebook’s paper.

The eight-GPU Big Basin chassis is the largest possible scale-up NVIDIA NVLink instance. It is expensive, even if you could buy OCP gear as an enterprise buyer. Plus, Facebook’s paper does not mention which OCP server chassis design and processor model they used for their benchmarks. Which processor it used may be a moot point, because if you are not a cloud giant, it is very difficult to buy a Big Basin chassis or any of the other OCP servers that Facebook uses internally. Using different hardware, your mileage is guaranteed to vary.

Facebook also does not divulge the operating system or development tools used in the paper, because Facebook has its own internal cloud instances and development environments. No one else has access to them.

The net effect is that it is nearly impossible to replicate Facebook’s achievement if you are not Facebook.

TIRIAS Research

Facebook Big Basin Server

IBM Scales-Out with Four GPUs in a System

IBM recently published a paper as a follow-up to the Facebook paper. IBM’s paper describes how to train a Resnet-50 model in under an hour at 95% scaling efficiency and 75% accuracy, using the same data sets that Facebook used for training. IBM’s paper is notable in several ways:

  1. Not only did IBM beat Facebook on all the metrics, but 95% efficiency is very linear scaling.
  2. Anyone can buy the equipment and software to replicate IBM’s work. Equipment, operating systems and development environments are called out in the paper.
  3. IBM used smaller scale-out units than Facebook. Assuming Facebook used their standard dual-socket compute chassis, IBM has half the ratio of GPUs to CPUs – Facebook uses a 4:1 ratio and IBM uses a 2:1 ratio.

IBM sells its OpenPOWER “Minsky” deep learning reference design as the Power Systems S822LC for HPC. IBM’s PowerAI software platform with Distributed Deep Learning (DDL) libraries includes IBM-Caffe and “topology aware communication” libraries. PowerAI DDL is specific to OpenPOWER-based systems, so it will run on similar POWER8 Minsky-based designs and upcoming POWER9 “Zaius”-based systems (Zaius was designed by Google and Rackspace), such as those shown at various events by Wistron, E4, Inventec and Zoom.

PowerAI DDL enables creating large scale-out systems out of smaller, more affordable, GPU-based scale-up servers. It optimizes communications between GPU-based servers based on network topology, the capabilities of each network link, and the latencies for each phase of a DL model.

IBM used 64 Power System S822LC systems, each with four NVIDIA Tesla P100 SXM2-connected GPUs and two POWER8 processors, for a total of 256 GPUs – matching Facebook’s paper. Even with twice as many IBM GPU-accelerated chassis required to host the same number of GPUs as in Facebook’s system, IBM achieved a higher scaling efficiency than Facebook. That is no small feat.

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IBM Power System S822LC with two POWER8 processors (silver heat sinks) and four NVIDIA Tesla P100 SXM2 modules

Commercial availability of IBM’s S822LC for low volume buyers will be a key element enabling academic and enterprise researchers to buy a few systems and test IBM’s hardware and software scaling efficiencies. The base price for an IBM S822LC for Big Data (without GPUs) is $6,400, so the total price of a S822LC for High Performance Computing should be in the $30,000 to $50,000 ballpark (including the dual-processor POWER8 server node), depending on which P100 model is installed and other options.

Half the battle is knowing that something can be done. We believe IBM’s paper and product availability will spur a lot of DL development work by other hardware and software vendors.

— The author and members of the TIRIAS Research staff do not hold equity positions in any of the companies mentioned. TIRIAS Research tracks and consults for companies throughout the electronics ecosystem from semiconductors to systems and sensors to the cloud.

[“Source-forbes”]

DuPont launches landmark low-emission alternative to Delrin 100 for gear applications

Image result for DuPont launches landmark low-emission alternative to Delrin 100 for gear applications

The launch of DuPont™ Delrin® 100CPE NC010 marks a landmark moment in DuPont’s offering to the automotive sector as well as non-auto gear applications. For sixty years Delrin®100 was the resin of choice for major OEMs and Tier 1’s in high performance gears and particularly in automotive actuators such as window lifters, steering support, safety restraint systems, wipers, and many more. Now, with the launch of this new grade, DuPont can provide its customers with superior environmental performance. In collaboration with a major industry partner, DuPont developed and is implementing the new grade in large scale commercial production.

DuPont is constantly working closely with leading automotive actuator companies on developing innovative solutions. Delrin® 100CPE NC010 is the result of one of these fruitful and longstanding collaborations, out of which was created a new, low-emission resin that outperforms high viscosity polyacetal resins. The thermal properties and high-temperature tensile creep performance of Delrin® 100CPE NC010 are comparable with the state of the art product, and when it comes to low-emission- and molding productivity performance, Delrin® 100CPE NC010 exceeds all expectations.

In this regard, one of the key benefits of Delrin® 100CPE NC010 is its level of

formaldehyde emissions, which is below 2 ppm according to the VDA 275 testing method. This allows compliance with current and future toughest emissions industry norms.

Delrin® 100CPE NC010 is the only high-performance resin with formaldehyde emissions below 2 ppm and strong molding productivity performance, enabling continuous molding for several thousand shots. Using Delrin® 100CPE NC010 leaves a very clean surface with a step change improvement in mold deposit performance versus incumbent solutions resulting in a cost reduction for manufacturers. The smell of formaldehyde during molding is also significantly reduced with the use of Delrin® 100CPE NC010. Its excellent molding performance combined with low emissions renders Delrin® 100CPE NC010 an attractive product for high load and high productivity gears in appliances, furniture and consumer segment.

“Mutual trust is at the heart of sustaining rewarding relationships with customers. They know that we can help them formulate new resins that combine the highest performance requirements for most demanding gear applications. Customers know that they can also rely on our global production capability”, says Lukas Bartek – Global Gears Segment Leader, DuPont Performance Materials.

DuPont is committed to developing innovative solutions for their customers’ main challenges.  By directly working together with customers throughout the entire value chain, and by sharing expertise and pooling resources, DuPont continues to turn out of the box ideas into concrete offerings.

To demonstrate the commitment to its customers and partners, DuPont is an active contributor to the 7th International Conference on Gears 2017, held in Garching near Munich at the Gear Research Centre (FZG) of the Technical University of Munich from September 13th to 15th, 2017.

[“Source-automotiveworld”]

DDB Mudra Group wins creative mandate for Puma

Image result for DDB Mudra Group wins creative mandate for Puma

MUMBAI: Iconic German sport lifestyle brand Puma has signed DDB Mudra Group as its creative partner in India. As part of the mandate, the agency will be responsible for the creative strategy and execution for Puma’s marketing communication in India.

The company has recently brought on board Virat Kohli as a brand ambassador.

Puma has been designing, developing, selling and marketing footwear, apparel and accessories, for over 65 years. It distributes products in more than 120 countries including India, where it’s the fastest growing sports lifestyle brand.

Abhishek Ganguly, MD, Puma India, said, “We firmly believed in new age media and have constantly strived to create our own differentiated patterns and modules; to engage with our consumers. I am confident that our partnership with DDB will help us create more resonance with our customers and bring forward the true spirit of our brand.”

The business will be led by Ranji Cherian, President and Managing Partner, DDB Mudra South and Vishnu Srivatsav, Creative Head, DDB Mudra South.

Cherian said “We intend to bring Puma’s unique voice to life in the sports and lifestyle category. It’s a prestigious account win for us, and a great canvas for our own capabilities and creativity. We’re relishing the challenge and the opportunity to be Puma’s partner in embedding itself in India’s consideration and culture.”

[“Source-economictimes”]

Global executive picks L.A. as world center for urban mobility

LOS ANGELES, CALIF. - SEPTEMBER 07, 2017: John Rossant, who heads LA Commotion, a multi day transpor

John Rossant is founder and chairman of the nonprofit NewCities foundation and creator of LA CoMotion, a big urban mobility conference and festival that’s attracting an international crowd to the Arts District Nov. 15-19.

A former journalist who has organized and produced conferences around the world, including the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, Rossant, 62, intends to make LA CoMotion a world-scale annual event. He recently moved with his family from New York to Los Angeles.

Family influence

I grew up in Manhattan. My father was a journalist at the New York Times. We would religiously read the New York Times at the breakfast table. It was a very bookish household. My outlook on life was formed by early reading.

When I was 17, I applied to the University of Wisconsin, where my girlfriend was going. I fell in with students from completely different backgrounds than my own. I think people who grow up in New York often forget how insular New York is to the rest of the country and the rest of the world.

After my freshman year, my dad ended financial support following a big disagreement — and I probably deserved the punishment. I had to drop out for a year, lived in a cold water flat in New York. I worked as a messenger on Wall Street and cleaned mouse cages at a lab. I was on my own financially. Not fun, but it taught me how to survive on my own.

The Cairo spark

When I returned to college, I saw signs for an Arabic course. The calligraphy was beguiling and I said, why not. When I graduated, I won a U.S. State Department fellowship for intensive training in classical Arabic in Cairo. I found myself in this huge, very foreign, exotic, wonderful city. This was clearly the spark that ignited my fascination with cities and how cities are organized.

If the ultimate iconic car culture city could change, any city in the world could change.

— John Rossant on Los Angeles

My first job was in Saudi Arabia, at the English-language Arab News. It was a truly alien place for a journalist back then: an absolute monarchy, a tribal system. Nobody quite understood what a Western journalist did, and I think most people thought I was a CIA operative.

Copines Françaises

Back in New York after a year and a half in the Arabian desert, BusinessWeek called me up one day and said they were opening a Paris office. Would I be interested? I said, “ummm … yes …”

The editor asked me if I spoke French. I told him yes, of course. He said OK, you’re heading to Paris next week. Let’s just say my French was pretty basic so I had to learn on the fly. I had French girlfriends and I forced myself to go to lots of French movies. That worked.

Later BusinessWeek moved me to Rome to cover Italy and the Middle East. I had to learn Italian, of course, and that’s where I was lucky enough to meet my wife. In 1991, I covered the first Gulf War.

After that I was back in Paris as Europe editor. I was at a working lunch in Paris with Maurice Levy, the legendary CEO of Publicis, the big French advertising and public relations firm. He invited me to his office. We had a long discussion of French history and American relations.

Levy was clearly looking for someone who could speak French, who knew about communicating with the Anglophone world. The digital onslaught was just beginning and I didn’t see a bright future for print so I made the decision to leave BusinessWeek. I was made head of communications and public affairs at Publicis.

Digital tsunami

The very week I joined Publicis, Rupert Murdoch made a prescient speech in Washington where he told assembled newspaper and magazine editors: “You’re all going to be out of a job. There’s a digital tsunami coming.”

I immediately recommended that Publicis launch a high-level conference on the future of media. I cut a deal with Prince Albert of Monaco to create the Monaco Media Forum. I developed a real passion for bringing smart people around a table to talk about issues.

For several years I was in charge of producing the famous World Economic Forum in Davos — and I started to gain a reputation as someone who could put together these kind of events.

At the same time, I was more and more fascinated and preoccupied by cities, the development of cities. A majority of the human population was moving to cities. At the same time, the digital revolution and the Internet held out the promise of radically reorganizing cities. For the better.

L.A.: Where it’s at

I created a nonprofit foundation, the NewCities Foundation. Our big annual meeting has now been held in Paris, Sao Paulo, Dallas, Jakarta, Montreal and Songdo, a very successful new city near Seoul, [South] Korea.

More and more, though, I saw that the huge disruption sweeping over the mobility and transportation sector would impact cities everywhere, and I saw a need for a global gathering on urban transportation.

I read Mayor Eric Garcetti’s Mobility 2035 transportation plan and was impressed. If the ultimate iconic car culture city could change, any city in the world could change. So why not anchor a global mobility conference in Los Angeles? L.A. in particular and California in general are emerging as the center of smart thinking about mobility.

Take a leap

When I look back, it’s important to trust your instincts and leap into the unknown. You have to kind of just take risks with things. It’s a lesson that’s hard to impart to your children, because risks sometimes don’t turn out so well.

Source:-.latimes