5 fascinating facts about world’s highest Chenab rail bridge!

World’s highest Chenab rail bridge is expected to be complete by December this year. The construction of the 359 m high bridge began in 2004. This bridge will be 35 m higher than the Eiffel Tower.

Chenab Bridge

Representative Image  |  Photo Credit: Twitter

New Delhi: Indian Railways is constructing the world’s tallest railway bridge over Chenab river in Jammu and Kashmir. This bridge which will be Railways’ finest engineering marvel and is being built at a height of 359 metres above the river. It may be noted that this bridge will be 30-35 m higher than the Eiffel Tower.

This bridge will form the crucial link between Katra and Banihal which is a key part of the Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla section of the Kashmir Railway project. The work on the installation of the main arch between two sides of the bridge has already begun, said an engineering member of the Railway Board recently. The construction of the bridge began in 2004. However, the work was stopped in 2008-09 on the account of rail passengers’ safety due to frequent high-velocity winds in the area.

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Here are 5 fascinating facts about the bridge that you should know.

1. This arch bridge will be 1.315-km-long and is being constructed at a height of 359 metres above Chenab river waters. The bridge will have railway stations at both its terminal ends.

2. Railways is planning to install sensors on the bridge to check the wind velocity. In case, the wind speed exceeds 90 Kmph, the signal on the railway track will turn red and any train movement will be stopped. As per officials, the bridge can withstand winds up to 260 Kmph and its lifespan will be 120 years.

3. Since the bridge is being built in a terrorism-prone region, the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is working the Railways to ensure that this Rs 12,000-crore bridge is able to withstand any major blast. Special 63 mm-thick blast proof steel is being used in the construction of this bridge.

4. The concrete pillars of this bridge are also designed in a way that it can withstand blasts/explosions. The bridge is designed by consultants from Finland and Germany.

5. Aside from blasts, the arch bridge is also being designed in a way that it can withstand an earthquake of magnitude 8 on the Richter Scale. It may be noted that even though the bridge falls under zone 4, it is being built to handle earthquake with an intensity of zone 5 which is the highest intensity zone in the country.

Worth mentioning here is that Railways is also constructing three big tunnels- T2 (5.9 KM), T3 (9.369 km) and T14 (13 km), on the other side of the river. According to officials, over 1,300 workers and 300 engineers have been working round-the-clock to complete the bridge by May this year.

A ropeway is being installed as well on the bridge as well for inspection and maintenance purpose. The Railway had to construct 22 km of roads in order to reach the bridge site. According to reports, footpaths and cycle trails will also be constructed adjacent to the railway bridge.

Take a look at the pictures here:

chenab bridge

(Picture Credit: Ministry of Railways Twitter)

chenab bridge

(Picture Credit: Twitter)

chenab bridge

(Picture Credit: Twitter)

chenab bridge

(Picture Credit: Twitter)

chenab bridge

(Picture Credit: Ministry of Railways Twitter)

chenab bridge

(Picture Credit: Ministry of Railways Twitter)

chenab bridge

(Picture Credit: Ministry of Railways Twitter)

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TomTom Wins Deal to provide Volvo motors With Maps, facts

TomTom Wins Deal to Provide Volvo Cars With Maps, Data

TomTom , the Dutch navigation agency, said on Wednesday it had won a settlement to offer Volvo carswith actual-time maps and traffic records for its motors.

terms have been not disclosed, but the contract is a prime win for TomTom, which competes with Google Maps and right here, the former Nokia unit now owned by Audi, BMW and Daimler.

TomTom, as soon as recognized primarily for dashboard-hooked up GPS systems, has won a string of contracts for its mapping era, which it believes will play an critical role as car using becomes more and more automated.

other TomTom clients include Volkswagen, Uber and Apple.

TomTom’s stocks are down more than 30 percent thus far this year, declining sharply throughout the January market promote-off and once more in February after issuing a forecast for five percent incomegrowth in 2016 that fell short of marketplace expectations.

© Thomson Reuters 2016

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App facts well-knownshows How the sector is napping

App Data Reveals How the World is Sleeping

ladies within the age group 30-60 worldwide are sound asleep extra than menabout 30 minutesgreater on averagewhilst middleaged men have become the least sleep, regularly getting much lessthan the encouraged seven-eight hours, a telephone app-based totally observe spanning one hundredcountries has found out.

folks that spend a while in the daylight every day generally tend to go to bed earlier and get greatersleep than individuals who spend maximum in their time in indoor light, the group from university of Michigan (UM) found.

The pioneering examine of worldwide sleep styles mixed math modelling, cell apps and large records todiscover the roles society and biology each play in putting sleep schedules.

The team used a free smartphone app that reduces jetlag to gather strong sleep records from thousandsof humans in one hundred nations.

amongst their findings is that cultural pressures can override herbal circadian rhythms, with the outcomesshowing up most markedly at bedtime.

whilst morning responsibilities like paintings, kids and school play a role in wake-time, the researchers say these are not the most effective thing.

throughout the board, it appears that society governs bedtime and one’s internal clock governs wake time, and a later bedtime is linked to a loss of sleep,” said Daniel Forger from U-M’s college of literature, scienceand the humanities.

at the same time, we discovered a sturdy wake-time effect from customersorganic clocks – now notjust their alarm clocks. those findings assist to quantify the tug-of-warfare between sun and social timekeeping,” he delivered in a paper posted inside the magazine technological know-how Advances.

“Sleep is extra important than quite a few people realise. Even in case you get six hours a night time,you’re nevertheless building up a nap debt,” noted Olivia Walch, doctoral pupil within the mathematicsdepartment.

inner or biological clocks are circadian rhythms – fluctuations in physical functions and behaviours that aretied to the planet’s 24-hour day.

these rhythms are set by means of a grain-of-rice-sized cluster of 20,000 neurons at the back of the eyes and are regulated via the amount of mild, particularly sunlight, our eyes soak up.

some years in the past, the group launched an app known as Entrain that helps guests alter to new time zones.

With data from thousands of humans from one hundred international locations in hand, the teamanalysed it for styles.

The spread of countrywide averages of sleep period ranged from at the very least round seven hours, 24minutes of sleep for residents of Singapore and Japan to a maximum of 8 hours, 12 mins for the oneswithin the Netherlands.

that is no longer a huge window but the researchers say every 1/2 hour of sleep makes a massivedistinction in terms of cognitive function and longterm fitness.

“It would not take that many days of not getting enough sleep earlier than you’re functionally drunk,” Walch noted, adding that the researchers have found out that being overly worn-out may have thatimpact.

what is terrifying at the same time is that people suppose they are performing duties manner better thanthey may be despite much less sleep.

“Your overall performance drops off however your notion of your overall performance does not,” the authors emphasised.

Chemo for person Sarcomas: Murky facts and specialists’ Insights

If there’s one issue that every one sarcoma experts can agree on, it’s the fact that no two sarcomaprofessionals appear to completely agree on the relative benefits and dangers of the usage ofneoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy in adults with gentle-tissue sarcomas.

The confusion is partly due to this tough fact: 86f68e4d402306ad3cd330d005134dac, authoritative recordsare hard to return through in sarcoma.

“There had been as a minimum 22 randomized scientific trials looking to see if neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy has any impact on remedy fees in patients with resectable sarcomas, and notwithstanding22 research, the jury remains out,” said Edwin Choy, MD, PhD, a medical oncologist on the middle for Sarcoma and Connective Tissue Oncology at the Massachusetts trendy hospital cancer center in Boston.

“So 4 or 5 of these research are advantageous, which means they sayyes, we ought to do it”, 4 or 5studies are bad, which means that people who were given the chemotherapy honestly did worse — had a decrease therapy fee than folks that didn’t get any chemotherapy — after which the opposite 12 or sostudies are largely inconclusive,” he stated in an interview with Medscape medical information.

Lee J. Helman, MD, head of the molecular oncology segment of the pediatric oncology branch on thenational cancer Institute’s center for most cancers studies in Bethesda, Maryland, agreed, noting that when investigators try to solution this query by carrying out systematic opinions and meta-analyses, “you get 3 research which might be positive, and 3 studies which can be terrible.”

big medical trials with doubtlessly authoritative results are hard to behavior due to sarcomas’ rarity,which means that that research are typically small and underpowered, Dr Choy stated.

Dr Helman, but, is quick to factor out that for pediatric patients with the extra not unusual sarcomas — Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma — the benefits of neoadjuvant chemotherapy are unequivocal.

“The consensus is that [these] pediatric sarcomas sincerely advantage from neoadjuvant chemotherapy, andalmost all sufferers get neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” he stated in an interview with Medscape clinical news.

nonetheless, some pediatric sarcomas are like grownup sarcomas.

whilst you get to pediatric sarcomas which can be greater like adult smooth tissue sarcomas, but, theytend to be less chemosensitive. The problem is that many, many studies test a drug in [adult] ‘soft-tissue sarcomas,’ and soft-tissue sarcomas are many, many histologies,” he said.

research of two drugs recently accredited by using the us food and Drug administration to be used in adults with sarcoma — trabectedin (Yondelis, Janssen Oncology) and pazopanib (Votrient, Novartis) — excluded sufferers with positive sarcomas that have been not going to be attentive to the medicine,however nevertheless included patients with some of exceptional sarcoma histologies to have enoughpatients to hit upon a treatment distinction, Dr Helman mentioned.

For maximum sarcomas, the great remedy is complete resection with adequate surgical margins. wherethere seems to be consensus that chemotherapy may be useful is in sufferers with tumors larger than fivecm, deeply seated tumors, and people with high-grade histology, he said. hold reading
further to surgical treatment and radiation, Dr Choy and colleagues tend to choose multidrug neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation for highhazard sarcomas with histologies which are touchy to chemotherapy,inclusive of synovial sarcoma and myxoid liposarcoma.

In assessment, myxofibrosarcomas and chondrosarcomas have a tendency to be insensitive to chemotherapy, and patients with those types of sarcoma would be not likely to gain. The selection is also based totally at the presence of excessivethreat capabilities, together with tumor size, intensity, grade, and affected person age.

In general, Dr Helman recommends chemotherapy for younger, healthier sufferers who’re able towithstand the rigors of cytotoxic chemotherapy and feature highrisk tumors.

In his discussion of the relative risks and benefits, he tells grownup patients that the informationassisting the recommendation are “now not compelling” due to the lack of randomized trial facts.

Dr Helman could also say, when fitting, that “I consider that these tumors are probable to be touchy to chemotherapy, and i trust our first-class shot is to deal with it at our first cross spherical.”

puppy concept

despite the fact that the proof is spotty, there are records that seem to aid the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in person sarcomas.

As pronounced through Medscape clinical news, a observe published in 2005 and a current meta-analysis showed that during patients with tender-tissue sarcomas of the extremities, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-pet) should provide useful prognostic factsbased totally on most standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of 18F-FDG.

within the 2005 observe, each SUVmax before neoadjuvant chemotherapy and alternate in SUVmax after chemotherapy independently recognized patients at excessive hazard for tumor recurrence.

A coauthor of that take a look at, Janet F. Eary, MD, professor of radiology and director of the advancedImaging Facility at the university of Alabama college of medicine in Birmingham, told Medscape scientificinformation that “while we validated that records, what it confirmed turned into that inside thepopulation we taken care of, chemotherapy — neoadjuvant chemotherapy — really had an effect.”

Dr Eary stated that she and her colleagues have supported the benefits of neoadjuvant chemotherapy ingentle-tissue sarcomas for the reason that past due Nineties, and that “we’ve by no means understood” why it isn’t used extra consistently in either the usa or Canada.

The trouble With examine statistics on an extraordinary most cancers

The specialists interviewed via Medscape medical information similarly defined how and why theinformation on chemotherapy and sarcomas are murky.

soft-tissue sarcomas account for much less than 1% of all cancers recognized inside the u.s., with anenvisioned 12,000 new cases annually. The relative rarity of sarcomas makes it hard for investigators to recruit sufficient sufferers for effectively powered scientific trials, and as a result, for each look atsuggesting a gain for chemotherapy, there is an same and opposite study showing equivocal gain atexcellent.

whilst it is commonplace to do adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy research in 2000 patients with lungmost cancers, for example, “you may believe how difficult it’ll be to do a 2000-affected person study in sarcoma. And so, in case you best do a three hundredaffected person study, then that examine wouldsimplest be positive if statistically the dimensions of the impact became large,” Dr Choy defined.

The efficacy of chemotherapy in sarcoma in general might be extraordinarily modest, he stated.

it is not the case that everybody who doesn’t get chemotherapy will die in their sickness quickly, andeach person who gets chemotherapy can be cured for all time. If that were the case, then we ought tolocate it out with a tenpatient observe,” he stated.

some other problem with medical trials is that to accrue enough patients for properly powered research, investigators have often lumped together sarcomas with distinct histologies with differing tiers of responsiveness to chemotherapy, Dr Choy said, echoing Dr Helman’s feedback.

Edwin Choy is the reporter’s clinical oncologist. Dr Choy, Dr Helman, and Dr Eary reported no applicablefinancial relationships.