NASA to launch sounding rocket which releases artificial clouds on June 4

NASA, sounding rocket, artificial clouds, space studies, visually track particle motion, vapour tracers

These clouds or vapour tracers allow scientists on the ground to visually track particle motions in space. (Image for representation, Source : NASA)

NASA on Saturday scrubbed the launch of a sounding rocket which will release blue-green and red artificial clouds. “Launch scrubbed because of boats in the impact area for the second stage motor. We will try again Sunday, June 4,” NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility announced on its Facebook page. The launch window is 4:26 to 4:41 a.m.EDT (1:56-2.11 p.m India time).

The launch of the Terrier-Improved Malemute sounding rocket testing a new deployment system to support space studies was originally scheduled for May 31, but it was subsequently delayed. “Clear skies are required at one of the ground stations to view blue-green and red artificial clouds that will be produced as part of the test. These artificial clouds may be seen from New York to North Carolina,” NASA earlier said.

The rocket will eject 10 canisters about the size of a soft drink can between 10 to 20 kms from the rocket’s main payload, and these containers will release the vapour between 4 and 5.5 minutes after launch.These clouds or vapour tracers allow scientists on the ground to visually track particle motions in space.

Also Read: Mongolia to send its first satellite to space on June 4

The development of the multi-canister or ampule ejection system will allow scientists to gather information over a much larger area than previously allowed when deploying the vapour just from the main payload.Ground cameras will be stationed at Wallops and in Duck, North Carolina, to view the vapour tracers. “The vapour tracers are formed through the interaction of barium, strontium and cupric-oxide. The tracers will be released at altitudes 96 to 124 miles high and pose absolutely no hazard to residents along the mid-Atlantic coast,” NASA said

Sounding rockets take their name from the nautical term “to sound,” which means to take measurements. The flight of a sounding rocket is short-lived, and has a parabolic trajectory — the shape of a frown. The total flight time for the current mission is expected to be about eight minutes. The payload will land in the Atlantic Ocean about 90 miles from Wallops Island and will not be recovered.


Steve Cox of Oracle: Cloud’s Lure is Return on Investment

return on investmentSmall Business Trends: Can you tell us a little about your role at Oracle and your personal background?

Steve Cox: Sure, I have been with Oracle Accelerate Global Programs for Oracle, focusing on two programs for applications with midsize customers, Oracle Accelerate and Oracle Business Accelerators. I joined Oracle in 1997 as a consultant and since joining, obviously I worked as a consultant. I did three years in product development and since 2003, I have been focusing on the midsize segment.

Small Business Trends: Can you explain what Oracle Accelerate is?

Steve Cox: Oracle Accelerate is Oracle’s brand and strategy for midsize applications. Partners who are members of the Oracle Accelerate program offer complete package solutions for customers that include our applications, rapid implementation tools and methodologies, their services and their Internet property.

Oracle Business Accelerators, are cloud-based rapid implementation tools developed and maintained by Oracle, and only available through proven and qualified partners.

Small Business Trends: You mentioned they are cloud-based. How does this help companies get up to speed and moving in the Cloud?

Steve Cox: Cloud computing brings companies within reach of the same powerful technologies and latest innovations that the largest companies in the world enjoy.

The Cloud can offer the ability to compete with these larger companies with lower cost. You create a configuration that allows customers to have the flexibility they need to maintain what makes them unique, and what gives them a competitive advantage.

Small Business Trends: How quickly are you able to help these companies get started?

Steve Cox: Most customers that I speak to move through five key phases on their journey. Oracle, and our Partner Ecosystems, provide support and professional associates throughout each of these phases. So that first step is aligning your organization’s business objectives and goals. Understanding those goals and aligning with how you are going to consume your software – whether it is in the Cloud or on the premise.

Then they need to use a cloud readiness service to reduce complexity and automation. Are you ready for the Cloud? Is your IT system ready for the Cloud? You should get complete implementation of migration services that can deliver the best practice and tools to help you succeed.

Small Business Trends: When you say, “ready for the Cloud, ” what does that mean?

Steve Cox: First thing is, you need to determine a return on investment on your IT project. Whether you are going to purchase applications in the Cloud, or whether you are going to move your IT back into the Cloud, or whether you are going to be able buy SaaS services.

You need to understand what would be the return investment. You need to invest to support growth. You need to understand the opportunities that the Cloud and any IT system provides. I think you need to understand the jargon:

  • How do you make the most of a limited project?
  • Where are you going to invest?
  • Do you have the right resources in place in terms of people, time, etc?
  • Where do you start?
  • What are your business priorities?
  • Where do you have to invest first, to get maximum return on the investment, maximum bang for the buck, if you like?

Small Business Trends: Are your customers and prospects looking to go to the Cloud to get to the next level? Or are they going so they can be more efficient?

Steve Cox: They are doing it for economic reasons. When you come to the Cloud, there is a lot of promise there that you can improve your return on investment. It can lower the cost of the adoption, and that is always on top of mind.

Small Business Trends: What are some of the biggest challenges that companies face when they make the move?

Steve Cox: I have never come across a company that plans enough. If your organization is expected to grow with a compound annual growth rate of 20% or 30% or more, what effect is that going to have on your priorities and challenges? What are you likely to be facing this time next year, or the year after?

The next question is what other resources available? Nearly everyone I have spoken to has a real good grasp of their budget. And then there is time. How long does it take for me to realize the return on an investment?

The next one really comes down to time scale. That is a measure of patience. When do I need to do this? Do I need to do this because my business is changing and I have to maintain competitive advantages? Or to improve it? Do you need to do it now, or can you look forward and say, “By this date I need to achieve X and Y.”

Small Business Trends: What functional area are companies really looking to the Cloud to get up to speed with?

Steve Cox: The Cloud option has a head start in CRM and human resources simply because it is a model that has lent itself to those two business areas. But I would say that in every conversation I have had with every customer and every partner, they look at it on a very broad basis and they tend to look across all the areas. They want the back office to front office solutions. They want to be able to support human capital management (HCM).

Small Business Trends: You have already laid out where you see things going over the next two years. Is there anything else that you see that will make this kind of move, something that midsize businesses in two years will not have to think as much about doing? Is going to be that easy in two years to do it?

Steve Cox: We have talked about the time scale, budget, business priority and challenge. I think it is going to be a lot easier to make the decision to adopt having made that adoption a lot easier. But it is still a decision you need to think about.

This interview about return on investment is part of the One on One interview series with some of the most thought-provoking entrepreneurs, authors and experts in business today. This interview has been edited for publication. To hear audio of the full interview, click on the player above.


present-day measurements yield insights into clouds of the past

Researchers have proven how quality debris are fashioned from herbal materials in the surroundings.these findings will enhance our know-how about clouds inside the pre-business technology and as a result will make contributions to a extra accurate know-how of both the beyond and future evolution of our weather.

A prerequisite for knowledge how weather has changed over the past centuries is the potential to reconstruct as reliably as viable pre-commercial climatic situations. An essential contribution has now been made with the aid of a comprehensive studies collaboration with contributors at CERN, the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, and severa other clinical establishments around the arena. The researchers investigated the formation of aerosol debris in the ecosystem. Aerosol debris are vital for climate due to the fact water droplets shape on those debris, resulting in clouds. Aerosol debris are not handiest directly generated —for example, from soot produced via burning timber or by means of vehicle site visitorsbut can alsobe formed in the ecosystem from gasoline section precursors. It have been notion that the presence of sulfuric acid became necessary for this latter method, and that consequently this mechanism only becameapplicable with industrialisation. Now the researchers have shown that aerosol debris may be shaped from precursor gases that are emitted via timber. thus these herbal materials had been producing the seeds of clouds from time immemorial. these findings are based totally on experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN, wherein a variety of atmospheric conditions can be very specifically replicated. further, parallelresearch at the Jungfraujoch excessive Altitude studies Station within the Swiss Alps verify that thesestrategies do take vicinity in this manner in the actual atmosphere. The results are supplied thru the coordinated ebook of 3 articles in distinguished scientific journals — in Nature and one in technological know-how.

to evaluate the impact of human hobby on weather, scientists ought to be able to evaluate latestweather with that of the pre-industrial era. One essential element of this attempt is to reconstruct the abundance and homes of clouds. This matters because clouds can replicate sunlight and accordingly, to a sure volume, masks the warming of Earth due to greenhouse gases. In turn, the formation of clouds is essentially decided with the aid of aerosol debris inside the air on which water can condense to shapecloud droplets. If extra debris are to be had, more droplets can form, and that modifications the traits of the clouds. Aerosol particles have a selection of sources — ranging for instance from desert dirt to sootparticles produced by means of burning wooden or fossil fuels. in addition, aerosol debris may befashioned inside the environment through a manner called nucleation, while fuel molecules be part ofcollectively. thus far, it become thought that this method become crucially depending on sulfuric acid, which has simplest been present in massive quantities within the ecosystem since the beginning of the industrialisation.

Aerosols from nature

we have now been capable to reveal that aerosol particles able to seeding clouds also can stand up fromnatural materials, consisting of the ones which are emitted with the aid of timber, explainsu.s.Baltensperger — head of the Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI and co-initiator of the project — who this 12 months became honoured with the Spiers Memorial Award of the Royal Society of Chemistry for his studies on aerosols within the surroundings. which means that evenbefore the industrialisation aerosol particles have been fashioned from gaseous precursors inside theenvironmentensuing in better concentrations than had previously been assumed.

this does not necessarily imply that there were extra clouds in the ones days than previously thought,provides PSI researcher Jasmin Tröstl. however the clouds probably consisted of more and smaller droplets, so that they had been brighter and meditated greater sunlight returned to area. thoseconsequences had been received within the framework of an extensive worldwide researchcollaboration underneath the leadership of researchers at CERN and the PSI. The researchers executedtheir experiments inside the CLOUD chamber at CERN and at the Jungfraujoch high Altitude studiesStation inside the Swiss Alps. The CLOUD chamber is a cylindrical vessel, four.3 metres high and threemetres in diameter, in which a variety of atmospheric conditions can be very in particular replicated. The researchers added the substance pinene, which is emitted via timber, and had been able to have a look at how aerosol particles fashioned in the CLOUD chamber.

Aerosol formation in two stages

We also characterised these strategies with the assist of mathematical models, via which we canunderstand how these debris are formed, Tröstl explains. All in all, it is a completely complicatedprocess. First the pinene molecules are altered through reactions with oxidants inclusive of ozone, and a large number of similar however nonetheless one of a kind molecules — with various stages of ‘stickiness’ — are created. The stickiest, those that bind especially properly with other molecules, can be a part of together to form tiny particles. that is the primary important step, because until the particlesreach a minimal length of around 1.7 nanometres, they truly evaporate again. With this, although, they’restill too small to function the seeds of cloud droplets; for that, they need to be more or less 50 to a hundrednanometres in size. so as for the particles to grow similarly, greater molecules want to condense onto them- and this increasingly includes also the less sticky ones which connect more without difficulty tolarger debris and are found in extra quantities, Tröstl says. those consequences are the most vital so far through the CLOUD test at CERN, stresses CERN researcher Jasper Kirkby, spokesperson of the CLOUDexperiment. when the nucleation and growth of natural biogenic aerosol debris is included in climatemodels, it have to sharpen our know-how of the effect of human sports on clouds and weather.

the 2 steps within the formation of recent aerosol debris are described within the pair of articles in Nature. CERN researcher Jasper Kirkby is first author of the first Nature article; PSI researcher Jasmin Tröstl is firstwriter of the second.

Aerosols excessive within the mountains

additionally, the researchers investigated aerosol particle formation beneath actual atmosphericconditions at the Jungfraujoch high Altitude studies Station. situated at greater than 3500 meters above sea stage, this station lies above the lowest layer of the atmosphere — the planetary boundary layer. Aerosol debris from the planetary boundary layer also can be discovered at this altitude, because they may be carried up with the rising air. moreover, newly fashioned particles can be located here, whosebeginning became inexplicable — till now. clearly, in evaluation to the test at CERN, we could not restrictourselves to at least one individual substance as the precursor for the aerosol particles, explains Federico Bianchi, who took part on this task in the course of his time as a researcher on the PSI and now works at the university of Helsinki. within the system, we found for the primary time in a natural putting the formation of aerosol particles from sulfuric acid and ammonia. extra importantly, we also have beencapable of look at the formation of recent aerosol particles from in basic terms natural materials.consequently the effects of the CLOUD chamber and Jungfraujoch measurements agree in showing that aerosol particles are certainly fashioned from in simple terms organic precursors.

incidentally, Bianchi adds, we may want to best take a look at aerosol formation at the Jungfraujoch atcertain times, because the precursor molecules additionally come out of the lower atmospheric layers, and it appears that the situations for this aerosol formation are most effective beneficial within a time window of round two days following their ascent out of the planetary boundary layer.

Bianchi is first author of the paper in technological know-how, which offers the effects of the Jungfraujochresearch.

Synergies between laboratory and subject

The researchers used the same contraptions for the observations on the Jungfraujoch and for the measurements in the CLOUD chamber. The heart of the gadget is a mass spectrometer — a complicatedpiece of equipment with which many hundreds of various chemical substances may be distinguishedfrom every other. The tool used become synthetic by using the Swiss corporation TOFWERK AG in Thun. This system made it possible to decide the chemical composition in a count number of seconds, Bianchi says.

The courses additionally show how crucial it’s miles to hyperlink laboratory and discipline experiments. Measurements inside the lab allow for certain investigations of person mechanisms, however simplest aarea test can provide information approximately whether or not this manner is applicable within theactual environment. And, says united statesBaltensperger, the Jungfraujoch is one of the fine websitesglobal to look at this type of system within the actual unfastened troposphere, thanks to its place, thesmooth air, and its infrastructure.

story source:

The above submit is reprinted from substances furnished by using Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). observe:substances can be edited for content material and length.

journal References:

Jasper Kirkby, Jonathan Duplissy, Kamalika Sengupta, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Christina Williamson, Martin Heinritzi, Mario Simon, Chao Yan, João Almeida, Jasmin Tröstl, Tuomo Nieminen, Ismael ok. Ortega, Robert Wagner, Alexey Adamov, Antonio Amorim, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Martin Breitenlechner, Sophia Brilke, Xuemeng Chen, Jill Craven, Antonio Dias, Sebastian Ehrhart, Richard C. Flagan, Alessandro Franchin, Claudia Fuchs, Roberto Guida, Jani Hakala, Christopher R. Hoyle, Tuija Jokinen, Heikki Junninen, Juha Kangasluoma, Jaeseok Kim, Manuel Krapf, Andreas kürten, Ari Laaksonen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Vladimir Makhmutov, Serge Mathot, Ugo Molteni, Antti Onnela, Otso in line withäkylä, Felix Piel, Tuukka petäjä, Arnaud P. Praplan, Kirsty Pringle, Alexandru Rap, Nigel A. D. Richards, Ilona Riipinen, Matti P. Rissanen, Linda Rondo, Nina Sarnela, Siegfried Schobesberger, Catherine E. Scott, John H. Seinfeld, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Frank Stratmann, Antonio Tomé, Annele Virtanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Paul E. Wagner, Ernest Weingartner, Daniela Wimmer, Paul M. Winkler, Penglin Ye, Xuan Zhang, Armin Hansel, Josef Dommen, Neil M. Donahue, Douglas R. Worsnop,americaBaltensperger, Markku Kulmala, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius. Ion-prompted nucleation ofnatural biogenic particles. Nature, 2016; 533 (7604): 521 DOI: 10.1038/nature17953
F. Bianchi, J. Trostl, H. Junninen, C. Frege, S. Henne, C. R. Hoyle, U. Molteni, E. Herrmann, A. Adamov, N. Bukowiecki, X. Chen, J. Duplissy, M. Gysel, M. Hutterli, J. Kangasluoma, J. Kontkanen, A. Kurten, H. E. Manninen, S. Munch, O. Perakyla, T. Petaja, L. Rondo, C. Williamson, E. Weingartner, J. Curtius, D. R. Worsnop, M. Kulmala, J. Dommen, U. Baltensperger. New particle formation inside the loose troposphere: Aquestion of chemistry and timing. technology, 2016; 352 (6289): 1109 DOI: 10.1126/technology.aad5456