View: India needs to improve its educational outcomes to catch up with China

Education

Both China and India started building their national education systems under comparable conditions in the late 1940s. Different policies and historical circumstances have, however, led them to different educational outcomes, with China outperforming India not just in terms of its percentage of literate population and enrollment rates at all levels of education, but also in terms of number of world-class institutions in higher education, and greater research output.

The roots of China’s successful education system date back to the Cultural Revolution(1966-1976), which unintentionally expanded access to the primary education through democratising the schooling system, which was previously elitist in character, thus addressing the problem of mass illiteracy.

In contrast, India continued to focus on its higher education system since independence and only realised the importance of basic education in 1986, keeping it behind China and many other countries in Asia in educational development. In terms of enrollment, China reached a 100 percent gross enrollment rate (GER) in its primary education in 1985, whereas, India attained that level only in 2000.

In terms of secondary school enrollment, India and China both started at the similar rates in 1985, with about 40 percent of their population enrolled in secondary schools. However, due to a wider base of primary school students, the rate of increase in China has been much faster than in India, with 99 percent secondary enrollment rate in China and 79 percent in India in 2017.

India is closing in on the Chinese rate in terms of access to education, but on the literacy level front, there is a huge gap in the percentage of literate populations in the two countries. In the age group of 15-24 years, India scores 104th rank on literacy and numeracy indicator, compared to China’s 40th rank.

The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which assesses after every three years the domain knowledge of 15-year-old students in reading, mathematics, science and finance, revealed that students in China performed above the OECD average in 2015. Moreover, one in four students in China are top performers in mathematics, having an ability to formulate complex situations mathematically. Further, China outperforms all the other participating countries in financial literacy, by having a high ability to analyse complex finance products. For India, the comparable data is not available as it was not a participating country in PISA 2015.

However, in India, the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2017 provides data for rural youth, aged 14-18, with respect to their abilities to lead productive lives as adults. According to this survey, only about half of the 14-year-old children in the sample could read English sentences, and more than half of the students surveyed could not do basic arithmetic operations, like division. For basic financial calculations, such as managing a budget or making a purchase decision, less than two-thirds could do the correct calculations.

With regard to the higher education system, both India and China dominate the number of tertiary degree holders because of their large population size, but when it comes to the percentage of the population holding tertiary degrees, only about 10 per cent and 8 per cent of the population possess university degrees in China and India, respectively. By contrast, in Japan, almost 50 per cent of the population holds a tertiary degree, and in the United States, 31 per cent of the population hold a tertiary degree.

In terms of the international recognition of universities, the Times Higher Education (THE) World University Ranking for 2019 places seven of the China’s universities in the top 200, compared to none for India. The global university rankings, which are based on various performance metrices, pertaining to teaching, research, citations, international outlook and industrial income, shows progress for several of China’s low-ranked universities, largely driven by improvements in its citations.

In fact, the Tsinghua University has overtaken the National University of Singapore (NUS) to become the best university in Asia due to improvements in its citations, institutional income and increased share of international staff, students and co-authored publications.

While India has progressed in terms of massification of education, there is still a lot which needs to be done when it comes to catching up with the China’s educational outcomes. China’s early start in strengthening its primary and secondary education systems has given it an edge over India in terms of higher education. Moreover, Chinese government strategies are designed in line with the criterion used in major world university rankings, especially emphasis is on the two factors which weigh heavily in the rankings — publications and international students.

The relentless publications drive, which is very evident in China, is weak in India and has led to a growing gap in the number of publications contributed by the two countries. Further, China enrolled about 292,611 foreign students in 2011 from 194 countries, while India currently only has 46,144 foreign students enrolled in its higher education institutions, coming from 166 countries. The large number of international enrollments in China is a reflection of its state policies granting high scholarships to foreign students.

To catch up with China, India needs to lay emphasis on improving its educational outcomes. Massification drive for education has helped India raise its student enrollments, but a lot needs to be done when it comes to global recognition for its universities. Further, it needs to focus on building the foundation skills which are acquired by students at the school age, poor fundamental skills flow through the student life, affecting adversely the quality of education system.

[“source=economictimes.indiatimes”]

The 9 Travel Stores With the Best Gear

Want to be creative? Follow these simple tricks

1/10Want to be creative? Follow these simple tricks

“Oh I am not that creative”- we all must have heard this sentence a number of times. And if you are someone who thinks that being creative is not everybody’s cup of tea, then let us break this myth for you.

Nobody is born creative, the art of thinking out of the box is an acquired one. Let us put this straight that everyone is creative in their own way.

Actually calling yourself non creative is a toxic mentality to have. Creativity is often understood as a way of thinking that is different and unique. You have to first make yourself believe that you can do anything, and then take the right steps to do it.

2/10Creativity differs from person to person

The reason why you think you are not that creative is because you are in all likelihood comparing yourself with others who are famous. You cannot compare yourself to Pablo Picasso or Lady Gaga; they are good at what they do and you may be great at what you do.

And as is rightly said “if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid.”

So if you truly want to be creative do not do these 8 things:

3/10Consider your work is done

Never consider your job as finished. Once the deadline approaches, we finish our work and consider it done and do not revisit it again. But if you are a creative soul, you know deep down that a project is never completed. Every time you revisit that particular work, you come up with a different alternative, to make it better.

4/10Think your idea is original

Nobody sprouts ideas on their own, so no idea is an original one. Every single person needs some sort of inspiration and that source of inspiration could be anything. You just need to be a little observant so keep looking for new ideas. You never know when you’ll come across something magical.

5/10Stay Comfortable

Some people are not creative because they do not look for things out of their comfort zone. Creativity will never come to you, you have to continuously keep searching for a new source of ideas. A true artist is the one who pushes his boundaries and gets out of their comfort zone. A truly creative person will be ready to take risks and willing to make mistakes.

6/10Compromise your style

Never surrender yourself in front of others’ opinion. This is one of the hardest things to do. People may often ask you to compromise your ideas in return of a nice reward, but you have to be firm on your decision. It is you who has to decide what is most important.

7/10Learn to accept rejection

In order to be creative, you need to be brave. Embrace your mistakes and learn to accept rejections. It is obvious that when you will step out of your comfort zone and try new things, people will tell you not to go that way. They would criticise you for your decisions, but you need to be brave to follow your heart and not be afraid of their comments.

8/10Never waste your time

If you want to be creative, never waste your spare time. Doodling is something that increases your productivity. Engage yourself in different kind of activities. More you absorb information, more creative you become.

9/10Challenge yourself

Try to challenge yourself every day, this helps a lot. Try some creative exercises, this will help you to think quick and creatively. You can also try painting and colouring.

10/10Look to nature for answers

Creativity never comes to those who lock themselves in a closed room. Look to nature for some ideas. Invest your time in nature as it is one of the best sources of inspiration.

[“source=timesofindia.indiatimes”]

ISRO set to launch Chandrayaan-2 in March-April

ISRO has 32 missions lined up this year

Bengaluru: The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on Friday said it missed the January-February launch window for the second moon mission,Chandrayaan-2, which is now expected to be carried out around April. The new schedule comes after the ambitious space mission missed two earlier launch windows in 2017 and 2018.

“Because we could not complete a few tests, we are now looking at March-April,” ISRO chairman K.Sivan said in Bengaluru. The mission would be carried out by April end and next in June if this one was also missed, he added.

The space agency has 32 missions lined up this year. It undertook 16 missions last year. The most ambitious among this year’s missions will be to put a human in space.

The agency aims to complete two unmanned missions beginning end of next year before it can actually put a human in space, scheduled for December 2021.

ISRO has opened a Human Spaceflight Centre to better enable the agency to carry out the manned mission. With a budget of Rs 10,000 crore,ISRO is looking to send three humans into space for seven days, though the specific number for its first ‘Gaganyaan’ is yet to be finalised. ISRO will help select the astronauts along with the Indian Air Force (IAF) and other premier agencies. The astronauts will be trained initially at ISRO’s human sciences centre and then travel to Russia for advanced training.

ISRO plans to set up ground stations in countries such as Russia and Japan for other programmes, according to Sivan.

Other major plans for 2019 include the Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV), one of the smallest launches for ISRO. Sivan said it will have a payload of only 500 kilograms, integrate within 72 hours and requires only six people to be part of the mission compared to other big programmes. The cost of the mission would be around Rs 30 crore, he added.

ISRO will also launch its second reusable vehicle later this year, which could pave the way for further cost reductions.

[“source=livemint”]