As a political scientist and academic administrator, I’ve long been interested in shared governance. But a new report on the value of shared leadership in higher education, prepared for the American Council on Education by Adrianna J. Kezar and Elizabeth M. Holcombe, has challenged my thinking. I see now how models of shared governance can focus more on distributing power than on collaborating meaningfully.
The authors differentiate shared leadership — the empowerment of multiple people and cross-functional teams — from the delegating of responsibilities to the faculty (versus administrative bodies) under shared governance.
As appealing as shared leadership is because of its emphasis on flexible, inclusive networks, the concept is less convincing when we make the leap from theory to implementation. How do we share leadership effectively when in reality people have different degrees of power? And how do we hold each other accountable, so that sharing leadership doesn’t devolve into inaction or chaos?
The report is a stark reminder to not let jargon, semantics, or the latest model get in the way. The issue is not about leadership versus governance, which as a political scientist I know isn’t a tenable choice.
It’s the shared part of both leadership and governance that matters. What are the purposes and principles we share, and how can we best collaborate around concrete issues? Figuring that out will always be difficult, but it also seems more authentically liberating and potentially a more effective way of fostering change.
What is Nibiru?Christians claim that the arrival of the planet will mark the apocalypse and could herald Jesus’ return, while other conspiracy theorists believe that it is a rogue planet which has yet to be detected by space officials – or has but they are covering it up to prevent widespread panic.
The mysterious object, otherwise known as Planet X, is allegedly due to enter the solar system in September 23 and will wreak havoc on our galactic neighbourhood.
Paranormal researchers believe Planet X is so large it would be able to counter the sun’s gravitational pull.
It is believed that it is difficult to spot due to the angle in which the huge mass is approaching Earth – towards the South Pole.
Planet X is supposedly heading to EarthAs the planet approaches it is expected to interfere with Earth, pulling it slightly off its axis, which would result in severe earthquakes and storms.
Christians such as David Meade have been analysing biblical texts and astronomical signs, and believe that Planet X will arrive on September 23, and herald the end of days.
Revelation 12:1 says: “A great sign appeared in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun with the moon under her feet and a crown of 12 stars on her head.
“And being with child, she cried out in her travail and was in anguish of delivery.”
Planet X is ‘at the edge of the solar system’
The ‘sign in the sky’ supposedly refers to the eclipse which took place on August 21.
Mr Meade explains: “The great sign of The Woman as described in revelation 12:1-2 forms and lasts for only a few hours. According to computer generated astronomical models, this sign has never before occurred in human history.
Bizarre moment ‘Planet X Nibiru is spotted from Earth
“It will occur once on September 23, 2017. It will never occur again. When it occurs, it places the Earth immediately before the time of the Sixth Seal of Revelation.
“During this time frame on September 23, 2017, the moon appears under the feet of the Constellation Virgo. The Sun appears to precisely clothe Virgo.”
It’s the age old question in photography: how much does expensive photography gear matter for achieving great shots? In this 8-minute video, photographer Erik Wahlstrom puts the question to 5 photographers.
There’s no clear cut answer to the question, according to this group polled. Yes, the photographer behind the camera has massive creative input… but they couldn’t take a photo without a camera in the first place.
So yes, photography gear does make a difference, “just don’t expect it to replace a solid foundation in photography,” says Alan Brock.
“In a lot of situations gear does matter, but probably not as much as you would think,” says popular landscape photographer Thomas Heaton.
The photographers featured in the video conclude that gear does play an important part in what makes a good photo, but it is only one piece of the puzzle that needs to be considered.
“There is no lens or camera body that will transform a bad photographer into a good one,” concludes Wahlstrom. “So does gear matter? Yeah. 100% yes. Absolutely it does. Except, I guess, when it doesn’t?”
The shock election result will come as a relief to schools leaders in particular, following months of audible protest and condemnation over Theresa May’s controversial grammar school expansion plans.
The Conservative Party is left in such a weak position that even if they form a government, ministers will in no way be able to push forward with the much contested selective schooling proposals outlaid in the Tory manifesto.
As a source close to Number 10 reportedly put it to the Times Education Supplement early on Friday morning, grammar school plans are “f***ed”.
Tory manifesto £4bn education pledge ‘could still leave schools short’
The result will come as a huge blow to New Schools Network head and free schools advocate, Toby Young, who has championed Theresa May’s plan to build at least 100 new free schools – including selective schools such as grammars – each year.
While most agree that new school places are needed – especially given the forecasted population increase – free schools remains something of a contentious issue, with some arguing they are too costly and unaccountable, receiving huge budgets while local authority schools are neglected.
As director of NSN, Mr Young was tasked with helping to deliver the new free schools, which are autonomous from local authority.
Speaking to The Independent before the snap election was called, however, he suggested that even if the current ban on selective school expansions were to be lifted “no more than five” would realistically have been opened by 2020.
Responding the outcome on Friday morning, Kevin Courtney, General Secretary of the National Union of Teachers, said: “The Conservative party was hugely divided over grammar schools.
“The initiative for them came directly from Theresa May and her advisor Nick Timothy – perhaps only introduced in a misguided attempt to gain voters from Ukip.
“This policy can’t possibly survive this calamitous election. Government education policy now needs to urgently concentrate on and address school funding cuts.”
Schools are already facing very real and immediate consequences as a result of the squeeze on school funding.
We’ve heard and read stories about schools closing half an hour early to save money, parents being sent begging letters asking for donations, and teachers buying art materials and textbooks using money from their own pocket.
Speaking on Radio 4’s Woman’s Hour in the run-up to election day, Home Secretary Amber Rudd admitted that a Conservative Government would not increase per pupil funding in England – a disclosure union leaders said confirmed their worst fears.
The future of school funding now hangs in the air: voters have undoubtedly reacted against the Conservative’s real terms cuts of 7 per cent per pupil, as well as the much criticised plans to scrap universal free lunches for infants.
By comparison, Labour pledged to increase school spending per pupil by 6 per cent compared with present levels, and the Liberal Democrat plan would protect spending in real terms at the 2017-18 level.
Responding to the main parties’ manifestos, however, the Education Policy Institute think tank published scathing criticisms that there had been “no clear indication” as to how any party intended to make savings, with “no clear estimate” of how some new policies would cost.
Industry leaders have long called for the school spending budget to be reassessed, and now it might have to be.
“Schools and universities are in comparatively good places,” said Sir Anthony Seldon, Vice Chancellor of the University of Buckingham.
“What they absolutely don’t need is any more initiatives from governments from the left or the right which will only damage the direction in which they are going.
“That said, the cuts to the school programme needs to be urgently eased out, or the quality of education will really suffer.”
The university head suggested a National Headship College needed to be set up – something his own institution Buckingham is proposing to do – to ensure that the quality of leadership across the country at primary and secondary levels is dramatically improved.
QS World University Rankings: top 10 UK institutions
“Finally, teacher recruitment needs to be given a very significant boost, particularly in maths and science, and that will mean more money will have to be found.”
While schools have made headlines for their financial struggles, top UK universities have been slipping down the ranks of recent global league tables – an issue experts have blamed on cuts to funding within higher education.
Despite this, Universities Minister Jo Johnson appears to remain in favour, with vice chancellors including Sir Anthony commending his efforts to pilot new university legislation, including the Teaching Excellence Framework.
“Dropping him would be folly and dangerous,” the Buckingham head warned.
Now, it seems, is the time for industry leaders to place increasing pressure on ministers to protect the rights of overseas students by allowing free movement following Brexit, and by discounting them from UK migration statistics.
“The government needs to start welcoming and celebrating overseas students, not deterring them, and it needs to ensure the softest of soft Brexit’s that will not inflict significant damage on British higher education and science.
“This is the time for strong and stable leadership in education,” Sir Anthony added. “Most governments and most education secretaries only start understanding their subject when it is time for them to pack up and leave. If they do what is laid out here and nothing else, they will make a success of their job. The rule is – don’t meddle.”
University and College union, which represents higher and further education institutions across the UK, said the next government must prioritise investment in further and higher education and act swiftly to end the uncertainty over the position of EU nationals.
Responding to early indications of high youth turnout, UCU general secretary, Sally Hunt, said: ‘It is encouraging to see that a positive message, particularly after the unpleasant Brexit campaign last year, can still inspire voters.
“Theresa May called this election expecting to secure a mandate for a hard Brexit. She has signally failed to achieve that and the next government must bring some stability in these chaotic times.
Polls in chaos as students stopped from voting then told to to return
Growing numbers of students say university ‘poor value for money’
Tory plan to scrap free school lunches labelled an ‘absolute betrayal’
Growing numbers of students say university ‘poor value for money’
“We believe an important first step is to now guarantee the rights of EU citizens currently in the UK, including thousands of university and college staff and students who contribute so much to our economy and society.”
The outgoing President of the National Union of Students, Malia Bouattia, added: “Students want to see progressive and fair policies that will have a very real and positive impact on all our futures.
“We want a government that does everything in its power to welcome international students and keep our universities and colleges diverse and vibrant.
“We have seen the student vote play a key role in marginal seats across the UK. The student vote yesterday was about more than tuition fees… it is unsurprising that they sent a strong message in this election not only to the Lib Dems because of their betrayal, but also to the Tories and their destructive policies of cuts and privatisation. “